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Multiple Intelligences Wiki
Multiple Intelligence is a theory proposed by
in 1983. The theory contains eight different intelligences. The intelligences can be defined as cognitive abilities. The theory is widely accept by professional educators but has not been fully accepted within the educational psychology community.
Linguistic intelligence is measured by a person's ability to learn and effectively use language. It encompasses sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use languages to accomplish certain goals. Language is also used by people with high linguistic intelligence as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and public speakers are among those that are seen as having high linguistic intelligence.
Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It includes the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. People with high linguistic intelligence have the capacity to be composers, singers, lyricists, or musicians.
Logical/Mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. People with high spatial intelligence think in terms of physical space and are naturally aware of environment. They can be taught through drawings and physical imagery. Artists, architects, photographers, and interior designers are some of the people seen to have high Spatial intelligence.
Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. Dancers, Athletes, and Actors are all seen to have high Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence.
Interpersonal Intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
Intrapersonal Intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives.
Naturalist Intelligence is a person's ability to identify and classify patterns in nature. Naturalist intelligence may be seen in the way a person relates to his/her surroundings and the role each part of said surroundings play. People who are sensitive to changes in weather patterns or are capable at distinguishing differences between large numbers of similar objects may be expressing naturalist intelligence abilities.
Multiple Intelligence Song
Multiple Intelligence Song
(This song and Youtube in general, is a helpful source for information on this topic. This video provides elementary knowledge on each intelligence category easily understood and is accessible to both students and teachers alike.)
Multiple Intelligences challenges the idea that people have a simple IQ and that this can be tested. IQ tests have been around since the 19th century. These tests took a person's entire cognitive ability and summarized it into one number, somewhere between 0 and about 150. The higher on this scale the number was, the "more intelligence" a person was. Howard Gardner, in 1983, released his theory that people do not have one intelligence, but their intelligence is made up from a culmination of different aspects of learning.
The theory of Multiple Intelligences was created by Howard Gardner and published in his novel Frames of Mind in 1983. The original theory has been changed and reviewed in the decades since by Gardner himself and others. The initial list of intelligences was thought of as
or criteria and are as follows:
Potential isolation by brain damage.
The existence of idiots savants, prodigies and other exceptional individuals.
An identifiable core operation or set of operations.
A distinctive development history, along with a definable set of 'end-state' performances.
An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility.
Support from experimental psychological tasks.
Support from psychometric findings.
Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system. (Howard Gardner 1983: 62-69)
These eight relative categories for intelligences have become less generalized and applied to actual methods of teaching since its creation in the 1980s.
Seven Forms of Intelligences
Howard Gardner then created a list of seven intelligences. The list was thought of as c
onditional and experimental. Keep in mind, the first two intellig
es were used in schools; the three after
that were correlated with the arts and the last two are thought of as “personal intelligences,” a term coined by Gardner (Gardner 1991: 41-43).
1. Linguistic Intelligence
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
3. Musical Intelligence
4. Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
5. Spatial Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
Although Gardner separates the last two intelligences they are thought of, even by Gardner, “as a piece”. This was an easy assumption because in many cultures they are closely associated or thought of as one but Gardner does create a line to differentiate the sixth and seventh intelligences. He then later explains that all of the intelligences are independent but are usually used at the same time and are seen as complementing each other while people solve problems and develop skills.
Howard Gardner argues that he was making two definitive declarations about the theory of multiple intelligences.
“The theory is an account of human cognition in its fullness. The intelligences provided 'a new definition of human nature, cognitively speaking' (Gardner 1999: 44). Human beings are organisms who possess a basic set of intelligences.
People have a unique blend of intelligences. Howard Gardner argues that the big challenge facing the deployment of human resources 'is how to best take advantage of the uniqueness conferred on us as a species exhibiting several intelligences' (
The Eighth Intelligence
After years of the theory being available to critiques and revision Gardner produced a new volume of Frames of Mind. With new volumes of his book came the addition of more types of intelligences.
“Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and his colleagues has looked to three particular possibilities: a naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and an existential intelligence. He has concluded that the first of these 'merits addition to the list of the original seven intelligences' (Gardner 1999: 52).”
This is how the eighth intelligence, Naturalist intelligence, was added to the list in 1999.
“The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straightforward, the position with regard to
is far more complex. According to Howard Gardner (1999: 59) there are problems, for example, around the 'content' of spiritual intelligence, its privileged but unsubstantiated claims with regard to truth value, 'and the need for it to be partially identified through its effect on other people'.”
This resistance to add these final intelligences: spiritual, existential, and moral all stem from the lack of stable claims that they are definitively different from one another.
Howard Gardner was part of the third wave of immigrants form Nazi Germany. His parents immigrated to Scranton,Pennsylvania in 1938 and shortly after, Gardner was born in 1943. As a child, Gardner was studious and enjoyed playing the piano. When Gardner was still in the womb, his older brother Eric passed away. Through this, Gardner's parent's expectations for Eric were passed along to him and attributes to his career today. Before 1961, when
Gardner first attended Harvard College, he had no ideals of the social sciences or cognitive developmental psychology. He became attracted through reading
research on cognitive development
. Piaget's theory dealt with knowledge, how human's gradually acquire it and use it. Through this Gardner gained a curiosity and became a synthesizer. He is best known for his works as a synthesizer of vast amounts of research and theory. The Multiple Intelligences theory is Gardner's most popular theory.
Howard Gardner is a graduate professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard Graduate School of Education. He is now teaching at his alma matter. He has penned 25 books that have been translated into 28 different languages, and several hundred articles. Through out his years, Gardner has received quite a few awards including the MacArthur Prize Fellowship in 1981, the Guggenheim Fellowship in 2000, and Honorary Professor at East China Normal University in 2004.
Ways to figure out what type of Intelligence you are:
Visual, auditory, kinesthetic learning styles model or VAK is a test that measures multiple intelligences.
The VAK (or VARK or VACT) learning styles model and related VAK/VARK/VACT tests (and for that matter the Multiple Intelligences concepts) offer reasonably simple and accessible methods to understand and explain a person's preferred ways to learn. Occasionally well-intentioned people will write that the use of such models and tests can be problematic. This is true of course of any tool if undue reliance is placed on the methodology, or if the results of tests are treated as absolute and exclusive of other styles and considerations in the overall mix of a person's personality and needs.
Take a FREE Multiple Intelligences Test to Find out what
type of Intelligence fits you the best!
Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scales books and tests:
Multiple Intelligences after 20 Years
Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered
High School Lesson Plan on Multiple Intelligences:
Multiple Intelligences Lesson Plan
Kindergarden Science Lesson Plan:
Science Lesson Plan
Possible Careers through Intelligences
Harvard Graduate School of Education
. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <
Flynn, James. "Searching for Justice: The Discovery of IQ Gains Over Time."
. (1999): 5-20. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <
Intelligence reframed: multiple intelligences for the 21st century
. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Print.
Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences
. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Print.
Gardner, Howard. "Students Conducting Research."
. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <
Gottfredson, Linda. "The General Intelligence Factor."
Scientific America Presents
. (1998): 24-30. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <
Smith, Mark K.. "Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education." Infed, 2008. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <
Winner, Ellen. "The History of Howard Gardner."
. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <
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